Karanos. Bulletin of Ancient Macedonian Studies is an Academic Journal focused in the Historical, Socioeconomical and Cultural perspectives related with. Russia said on Monday it hoped the situation in Macedonia would unfold in line with the law after a referendum there seeking to change the country's name. Learn Macedonian: easy, online and free for beginners and advanced learners - no registration required.
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Die Einhaltung der Auflagen wird Macedonia On Line regelmГГig von unabhГngigen Protipster kontrolliert. - So kannst du eine Wunschliste erstellen!According to Bloomberg there was never an established link between that fake news factory and Russia interests. We Exist to Develop Dynamic Disciples. Come worship with us! Brian James Edmonds, M. Div. Senior Pastor Bedford Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA Watch online to Macedonia TV stations including Alsat-M, Sitel TV, Kanal 5, MRT 1, 24 Vesti and many more. Send gifts to Macedonia from tomramstack.com, India's leading gift shop. Buy best gifts for online. Worldwide delivery, on-time. Join us from your favorite device. Ќерката на некогашна македонска музичка ѕвезда Зорица Поп-Панкова само со една желба за Новата година: Дедо Мраз да ми фатиш врска, да си го најдам своето заслужено место во некое убаво театарско семејство.
Krushevo is burned to the ground and more then Macedonian villages destroyed. In this same year Krste Misirkov from Pella Postol , the founder of the modern Macedonian literary language and orthography, publishes his "On Macedonian Matters", in which he projects the principles for standardization of the Macedonian literary language.
The Macedonian revolutionary organization, through Jane Sandanski and the newly formed National Federal Party, actively takes part in the Young Turk movement for achieving autonomy for Macedonia.
Macedonia is denied independence and the Treaty of Bucharest August partitions the country between Greece, Serbia, and Bulgaria.
The Greek army burns to the ground the town Kukush, the birthplace of the Macedonian leader Georgi Goce Delcev.
Bulgaria annexed the Pirin region and abolished the Macedonian name, and Serbia took over the Vardar region and renamed it to "Southern Serbia".
Bulgaria sides with the Central powers and by occupies the Serbian held part of Macedonia Vardar. The defeat of the Central powers and the end of World War I in saw the partition of reconfirmed and Macedonia is left divided.
The Treaty of Versailles sanctions the partition of Macedonia. Vardar Macedonia is re-incorporated with the rest of Serbia and into the new Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes, later renamed Yugoslavia.
Greece prints out the primer "Abecedar" in the Macedonian language for the needs of the Macedonian children in Aegean Macedonia but it withdrawn before it reaches the schools.
Its main objective is to free Macedonia within its geographical and economical borders and create an independent political unit that will become an equal member for future Balkan Federation.
On October 11, , the Macedonians launch a war for liberation of Macedonia from the Bulgarian occupation. The first unit of the Army of Macedonia is founded and government bodies national liberation councils are formed over the whole territory of Macedonia.
The Headquarters of the National Liberation Army NOV publishes a manifesto of the goals of the war for liberation. Representatives from all parts of Macedonia gather for the occasion and decide on the constitution of a modern Macedonian state as member of the new Yugoslav federation.
The ASNOM presidium is formed with Metodia Andonov Chento as its first President. Start of university education in Macedonian Faculty of Philosophy.
The majority of the population in the Pirin part of Macedonia declares itself as Macedonian in a free census. About half of the 35, soldiers of DAG are Macedonians.
On the liberated territory in Aegean Macedonia 87 Macedonian schools are opened, newspapers in Macedonian are published, and cultural and artistic associations created.
But after few years of KKE's success, the communists lose the war, and the Macedonians are once again stripped of their human rights.
Thousands of Macedonians lost their lives and great numbers of the Macedonian villages are burned to the ground. Since then Bulgaria under nationalist Todor Zhivkov reverts its decision of recognizing the Macedonian nation and once again forbids free expression of Macedonian nationality and language.
Macedonian sovereignty in the region was brought to an end at the hands of the rising power of Rome in the 2nd century BC.
Philip V of Macedon took his kingdom to war against the Romans in two wars during his reign — BC. The First Macedonian War — BC was fairly successful for the Macedonians but Philip was decisively defeated in the Second Macedonian War in — BC.
Although he survived war with Rome, his successor Perseus of Macedon reigned — BC did not; having taken Macedon into the Third Macedonian War in — BC , he lost his kingdom when he was defeated.
Macedonia was initially divided into four republics subject to Rome before finally being annexed in BC as a Roman province.
Around this time, vulgar Latin was introduced in the Balkans by Latin-speaking colonists and military personnel. With the division of the Roman Empire into west and east in AD, Macedonia came under the rule of Rome's Byzantine successors.
The population of the entire region was, however, depleted by destructive invasions of various Gothic and Hun tribes c. Despite this, other parts of the Byzantine empire continued to flourish, in particular some coastal cities such as Thessaloniki became important trade and cultural centres.
Despite the empire's power, from the beginning of the 6th century the Byzantine dominions were subject to frequent raids by various Slavic tribes which, in the course of centuries, eventually resulted in drastic demographic and cultural changes in the Empire's Balkan provinces.
Although traditional scholarship attributes these changes to large-scale colonizations by Slavic-speaking groups, it has been proposed that a generalized dissipation of Roman identity might have commenced in the 3rd century, especially among rural provincials who were crippled by harsh taxation and famines.
Given this background, penetrations carried by successive waves of relatively small numbers of Slavic warriors and their families might have been capable of assimilating large numbers of indigenes into their cultural model, which was sometimes seen as a more attractive alternative.
In this way and in the course of time, great parts of Macedonia came to be controlled by Slavic-speaking communities.
Despite numerous attacks on Thessaloniki, the city held out, and Byzantine-Roman culture continued to flourish, although Slavic cultural influence steadily increased.
The Slavic settlements organized themselves along tribal and territorially based lines which were referred to by Byzantine Greek historians as "Sklaviniai".
The Sklaviniai continued to intermittently assault the Byzantine Empire, either independently, or aided by Bulgar or Avar contingents.
Around AD a "Bulgar" group which was largely composed of the descendants of former Roman Christians taken captive by the Avars , led by Khan Kuber theorized to have belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh , settled in the Pelagonian plain , and launched campaigns to the region of Thessaloniki.
When the Empire could spare imperial troops, it attempted to regain control of its lost Balkan territories. By the time of Constans II a significant number of the Slavs of Macedonia were captured and transferred to central Asia Minor where they were forced to recognize the authority of the Byzantine emperor and serve in his ranks.
In the late 7th century, Justinian II again organized a massive expedition against the Sklaviniai and Bulgars of Macedonia.
Launching from Constantinople, he subdued many Slavic tribes and established the Theme of Thrace in the hinterland of the Great City, and pushed on into Thessaloniki.
However, on his return he was ambushed by the Slavo-Bulgars of Kuber, losing a great part of his army, booty, and subsequently his throne.
The emperors rather resorted to withdrawing their defensive line south along the Aegean coast, until the late 8th century.
Although a new theme—that of "Macedonia"—was subsequently created, it did not correspond to today's geographic territory, but one farther east centred on Adrianople , carved out of the already existing Thracian and Helladic themes.
Slavic influence in the region strengthened along with the rise of this state, which incorporated parts of the region to its domain in In the early s Saints Cyril and Methodius , two Byzantine Greek brothers from Thessaloniki, created the first Slavic Glagolitic alphabet in which the Old Church Slavonic language was first transcribed, and are thus commonly referred to as the apostles of the Slavic world.
Their cultural heritage was acquired and developed in medieval Bulgaria, where after the region of Ohrid present-day Republic of North Macedonia became a significant ecclesiastical center with the nomination of the Saint Clement of Ohrid for "first archbishop in Bulgarian language" with residence in this region.
In conjunction with another disciple of Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Naum , Clement created a flourishing Slavic cultural center around Ohrid, where pupils were taught theology in the Old Church Slavonic language and the Glagolitic and Cyrillic script at what is now called Ohrid Literary School.
According to the Byzantine author John Kaminiates , at that time the neighbouring settlements around Thessaloniki were inhabited by "Scythians" Bulgarians and the Slavic tribes of Drugubites and Sagudates , in addition to Greeks.
At the end of the 10th century, what is now the Republic of North Macedonia became the political and cultural heartland of the First Bulgarian Empire , after Byzantine emperors John I Tzimiskes conquered the eastern part of the Bulgarian state during the Rus'—Byzantine War of — The Bulgarian capital Preslav and the Bulgarian Tsar Boris II were captured, and with the deposition of the Bulgarian regalia in the Hagia Sophia , Bulgaria was officially annexed to Byzantium.
A new capital was established at Ohrid, which also became the seat of the Bulgarian Patriarchate. A new dynasty, that of the Comitopuli under Tsar Samuil and his successors, continued resistance against the Byzantines for several more decades, before also succumbing in The western part of Bulgaria including Macedonia was incorporated into the Byzantine Empire as the province of Bulgaria Theme of Bulgaria and the Bulgarian Patriarchate was reduced in rank to an Archbishopric.
Intermittent Bulgarian uprisings continued to occur, often with the support of the Serbian princedoms to the north.
Any temporary independence that might have been gained was usually crushed swiftly by the Byzantines. It was also marked by periods of war between the Normans and Byzantium.
The Normans launched offensives from their lands acquired in southern Italy, and temporarily gained rule over small areas in the northwestern coast.
At the end of the 12th century, some northern parts of Macedonia were temporarily conquered by Stefan Nemanja of Serbia. In the 13th century, following the Fourth Crusade , Macedonia was disputed among Byzantine Greeks , Latin crusaders of the short-lived Kingdom of Thessalonica , and the revived Bulgarian state.
Most of southern Macedonia was secured by the Despotate of Epirus and then by the Empire of Nicaea , while the north was ruled by Bulgaria.
After however, all of Macedonia returned to Byzantine rule, where it largely remained until the Byzantine civil war of — Taking advantage of this conflict, the Serb ruler Stefan Dushan expanded his realm and founded the Serbian Empire , which included all of Macedonia, northern and central Greece — excluding Thessaloniki, Athens and the Peloponnese.
Dushan's empire however broke up shortly after his death in Since the middle of the 14th century, the Ottoman threat was looming in the Balkans, as the Ottomans defeated the various Christian principalities, whether Serb, Bulgarian or Greek.
After the Ottoman victory in the Battle of Maritsa in , most of Macedonia accepted vassalage to the Ottomans and by the end of the 14th century the Ottoman Empire gradually annexed the region.
The final Ottoman capture of Thessalonica was seen as the prelude to the fall of Constantinople itself. Macedonia remained a part of the Ottoman Empire for nearly years, during which time it gained a substantial Turkish minority.
Thessaloniki later become the home of a large Sephardi Jewish population following the expulsions of Jews after from Spain. Over the centuries Macedonia had become a multicultural region.
The historical references mention Greeks, Bulgarians, Turks, Albanians, Gypsies, Jews and Vlachs. From the Middle Ages to the early 20th century the Slavic-speaking population in Macedonia was identified mostly as Bulgarian.
During the period of Bulgarian National Revival many Bulgarians from these regions supported the struggle for creation of Bulgarian cultural educational and religious institutions, including Bulgarian Exarchate.
Krste Misirkov , a philologist and publicist, wrote his work " On the Macedonian Matters " , for which he is heralded by Macedonians as one of the founders of the Macedonian nation.
After the revival of Greek, Serbian, and Bulgarian statehood in the 19th century, the Ottoman lands in Europe that became identified as "Macedonia", were contested by all three governments, leading to the creation in the s and s of rival armed groups who divided their efforts between fighting the Turks and one another.
The most important of these was the Bulgarian Macedonian-Adrianople Revolutionary Committee BMARC, SMARO from an alternative version says that it consisted of the Macedonian Revolutionary Organization MRO, TMORO from , under Gotse Delchev who in rebelled in the so-called Ilinden-Preobrazhenie Uprising , fighting for an autonomous or independent Macedonian state before only Bulgarians could join, but afterward, it invited "any Macedonian or Odrinian, irrespective of nationality, to join together" , and the Greek efforts from until Greek Struggle for Macedonia.
Diplomatic intervention by the European powers led to plans for an autonomous Macedonia under Ottoman rule.
The restricted borders of the modern Greek state at its inception in disappointed the inhabitants of northern Greece Epirus and Macedonia.
The Greek is not only he who inhabits the kingdom, but also he who lives in Ioannina, or Thessaloniki, or Serres, or Odrin".
The important idea here is that for Greece, Macedonia was a region with large Greek populations expecting annexation to the new Greek state.
The Congress of Berlin changed the Balkan map again. The treaty restored Macedonia and Thrace to the Ottoman Empire.
Serbia, Romania and Montenegro were granted full independence, and some territorial expansion at the expense of the Ottoman Empire.
Russia would maintain military advisors in Bulgaria and Eastern Rumelia until May Austria-Hungary was permitted to occupy Bosnia, Herzegovina and the Sanjak of Novi Pazar.
The Congress of Berlin also forced Bulgaria, newly given autonomy by the Treaty of San Stefano , to return over half of its newly gained territory to the Ottoman Empire.
This included Macedonia, a large part of which was given to Bulgaria, due to Russian pressure and the presence of significant numbers of Bulgarians and adherents to the Bulgarian Exarchate.
The territorial losses dissatisfied Bulgaria; this fuelled the ambitions of many Bulgarian politicians for the following seventy years, who wanted to review the treaty — by peaceful or military means and to reunite all lands which they claimed had a Bulgarian majority.
Besides, Serbia was now interested in the Macedonian lands, until then only Greece was Bulgaria's main contender, which after the addition of Thessaly to Greece in was bordering Macedonia.
Thus, the Berlin Congress renewed the struggle for Turkey in Europe, including the so-called Macedonia region, rather than setting up a permanent regime.
In the following years, all of the neighboring states struggled over Turkey in Europe; they were only kept at bay by their own restraints, the Ottoman Army and the territorial ambitions of the Great Powers in the region.
Serbian policy had a distinct anti-Bulgarian flavor, attempting to prevent the Bulgarian influencing the inhabitants of Macedonia.
On the other hand, Bulgaria was using the power of its religious institutions Bulgarian Exarchate established in to promote its language and make more people identify with Bulgaria.
Greece, in addition, was in an advantageous position for protecting its interests through the influence of Patriarchate of Constantinople which traditionally sponsored Greek-language and Greek-culture schools also in villages with few Greeks.
This put the Patriarchate in dispute with the Exarchate, which established schools with Bulgarian education. Indeed, belonging to one or another institution could define a person's national identity.
Simply, if a person supported the Patriarchate they were regarded as Greek, whereas if they supported the Exarchate they were regarded as Bulgarian.
Some were locally recruited and self-organized while others were sent and armed by the protecting states. The aim of the adversaries, however, was not primarily to extend their influence over Macedonia but merely to prevent Macedonia succumbing to the influence of the other.
This often violent attempt to persuade the people that they belonged to one ethnic group or another pushed some people to reject both. The severe pressure on the peaceful peasants of Macedonia worked against the plans of the Serbians and Bulgarians to make them adopt their ethnic idea and eventually a social divide became apparent.
The British Ambassador in Belgrade in said: "At present the unfortunate Macedonian peasant is between the hammer and the anvil.
One day 'comitadjis' come to his house and demand under threat lodging, food and money and the next day the gendarm hales him off to prison for having given them; the Macedonian is really a peaceable, fairly industrious agriculturist and if the Serbian government give him adequate protection, education, freedom from malaria and decent communications, there seems no reason why he should not become just as Serbian in sentiment as he was Bulgarian 10 years ago".
As a result of this game of tug-of-war, the development of a distinct Macedonian national identity was impeded and delayed. Moreover, when the imperialistic plans of the surrounding states made possible the division of Macedonia, some Macedonian intellectuals such as Misirkov mentioned the necessity of creating a Macedonian national identity which would distinguish the Macedonian Slavs from Bulgarians, Serbians or Greeks.
Baptizing Macedonian Slavs as Serbian or Bulgarian aimed therefore to justify these countries' territorial claims over Macedonia. The Greek side, with the assistance of the Patriarchate that was responsible for the schools, could more easily maintain control, because they were spreading Greek identity.
For the very same reason the Bulgarians, when preparing the Exarchate's government included Macedonians in the assembly as "brothers" to prevent any ethnic diversification.
On the other hand, the Serbs, unable to establish Serbian-speaking schools, used propaganda. Their main concern was to prevent the Slavic-speaking Macedonians from acquiring Bulgarian identity through concentrating on the myth of the ancient origins of the Macedonians and simultaneously by the classification of Bulgarians as Tatars and not as Slavs, emphasizing their 'Macedonian' characteristics as an intermediate stage between Serbs and Bulgarians.
To sum up the Serbian propaganda attempted to inspire the Macedonians with a separate ethnic identity to diminish the Bulgarian influence. This choice was the 'Macedonian ethnicity'.
The Bulgarians never accepted an ethnic diversity from the Slav Macedonians, giving geographic meaning to the term. In they established the Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization VMRO aiming to confront the Serbian and Greek action in Macedonia.
VMRO hoped to answer the Macedonian question through a revolutionary movement, and so they instigated the Ilinden Uprising to release some Ottoman territory.
Bulgaria used this to internationalize the Macedonian question. Ilinden changed Greece's stance which decided to take Para-military action.
In order to protect the Greek Macedonians and Greek interests, Greece sent officers to train guerrillas and organize militias Macedonian Struggle , known as makedonomahi Macedonian fighters , essentially to fight the Bulgarians.
After that it was obvious that the Macedonian Question could be answered only with a war. The rise of the Albanian and the Turkish nationalism after , however, prompted Greece, Serbia and Bulgaria to bury their differences with regard to Macedonia and to form a joint coalition against the Ottoman Empire in Disregarding public opinion in Bulgaria, which was in support of the establishment of an autonomous Macedonian province under a Christian governor, the Bulgarian government entered a pre-war treaty with Serbia which divided the region into two parts.
Serbia formally renounced any claims to the part of Macedonia south and east of the line, which was declared to be within the Bulgarian sphere of interest.
The pre-treaty between Greece and Bulgaria, however, did not include any agreement on the division of the conquered territories — evidently both countries hoped to occupy as much territory as possible having their sights primarily set on Thessaloniki.
In the First Balkan War , Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro occupied almost all Ottoman-held territories in Europe. Bulgaria bore the brunt of the war fighting on the Thracian front against the main Ottoman forces.
Both her war expenditures and casualties in the First Balkan War were higher than those of Serbia, Greece and Montenegro combined. Macedonia itself was occupied by Greek, Serbian and Bulgarian forces.
The Ottoman Empire in the Treaty of London in May assigned the whole of Macedonia to the Balkan League , without, specifying the division of the region, to promote problems between the allies.
Dissatisfied with the creation of an autonomous Albanian state, which denied her access to the Adriatic , Serbia asked for the suspension of the pre-war division treaty and demanded from Bulgaria greater territorial concessions in Macedonia.
Later in May the same year, Greece and Serbia signed a secret treaty in Thessaloniki stipulating the division of Macedonia according to the existing lines of control.
Both Serbia and Greece, as well as Bulgaria, started to prepare for a final war of partition. In June , Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand , without consulting the government, and without any declaration of war, ordered Bulgarian troops to attack the Greek and Serbian troops in Macedonia, initiating the Second Balkan War.
The Bulgarian army was in full retreat in all fronts. The Serbian army chose to stop its operations when achieved all its territorial goals and only then the Bulgarian army took a breath.
During the last two days the Bulgarians managed to achieve a defensive victory against the advancing Greek army in the Kresna Gorge. However at the same time the Romanian army crossed the undefended northern border and easily advanced towards Sofia.
Romania interfered in the war, in order to satisfy its territorial claims against Bulgaria. The Ottoman Empire also interfered, easily reassuming control of Eastern Thrace with Edirne.
The Second Balkan War, also known as Inter-Ally War, left Bulgaria only with the Struma valley and a small part of Thrace with minor ports at the Aegean sea.
Vardar Macedonia was incorporated into Serbia and thereafter referred to as South Serbia. Southern Aegean Macedonia was incorporated into Greece and thereafter was referred to as northern Greece.
The region suffered heavily during the Second Balkan War. During its advance at the end of June, the Greek army set fire to the Bulgarian quarter of the town of Kilkis and over villages around Kilkis and Serres driving some 50, refugees into Bulgaria proper.
The Bulgarian army retaliated by burning the Greek quarter of Serres and by arming Muslims from the region of Drama which led to a massacre of Greek civilians.
In September , the Greek government authorized the landing of the troops in Thessaloniki. In the pro-German King of Greece agreed with the Germans to allow military forces of the Central Powers to enter Greek Macedonia to attack Bulgarian forces in Thessaloniki.
As a result, Bulgarian troops occupied the eastern part of Greek Macedonia, including the port of Kavala. The region was, however, restored to Greece following the victory of the Allies in After the destruction of the Greek Army in Asia Minor in Greece and Turkey exchanged most of Macedonia's Turkish minority and the Greek inhabitants of Thrace and Anatolia , as a result of which Aegean Macedonia experienced a large addition to its population and became overwhelmingly Greek in ethnic composition.
Serbian-ruled Macedonia was incorporated into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in Yugoslav Macedonia was subsequently subjected to an intense process of " Serbianization " during the s and s.
During World War II the boundaries of the region shifted yet again. When the German forces occupied the area, most of Yugoslav Macedonia and part of Aegean Macedonia were transferred for administration to Bulgaria.
During the Bulgarian administration of Eastern Greek Macedonia, some , Bulgarian refugees from the region were resettled there and perhaps as many Greeks were deported or fled to other parts of Greece.
Western Aegean Macedonia was occupied by Italy , with the western parts of Yugoslav Macedonia being annexed to Italian-occupied Albania.
The remainder of Greek Macedonia including all of the coast was occupied by Nazi Germany. One of the worst episodes of the Holocaust happened here when 60, Jews from Thessaloniki were deported to extermination camps in occupied Poland.
Only a few thousand survived. Macedonia was liberated in , when the Red Army's advance in the Balkan Peninsula forced the German forces to retreat. The pre-war borders were restored under U.
The Bulgarian Macedonia returned fairly rapidly to normality, but the Bulgarian patriots in Yugoslav Macedonia underwent a process of ethnic cleansing by the Belgrade authorities, and Greek Macedonia was ravaged by the Greek Civil War , which broke out in December and did not end until October After this civil war, a large number of former ELAS fighters who took refuge in communist Bulgaria and Yugoslavia and described themselves as "ethnic Macedonians" were prohibited from reestablishing to their former estates by the Greek authorities.
Most of them were accused in Greece for crimes committed during the period of the German occupation. The imminent collapse of the Ottoman Empire was welcomed by the Balkan states, as it promised to restore their European territory.
The Young Turk Revolution of proved a nationalistic movement thwarting the peoples' expectations of the empire's modernization and hastened the end of the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans.
To this end, an alliance was struck among the Balkan states in Spring The First Balkan War, which lasted six weeks, commenced in August , when Montenegro declared war on the Ottoman Empire, whose forces ultimately engaged four different wars in Thrace, Macedonia, Northern and Southern Albania and Kosovo.
The Macedonian campaign was fought in atrocious conditions. The retreat of the Ottoman army from Macedonia succeeded the desperate effort of the Greek and Bulgarian forces to reach the city of Thessalonica , the "single prize of the first Balkan War" for whose status no prior agreements were done.
In this case possession would be equal to acquisition. The Greek forces entered the city first liberating officially, a progress only positive for them.
Glenny says: "for the Greeks it was a good war". The first Balkan War managed to liberate Balkans from Turks and settled the major issues except Macedonia.
In the spring the Serbs and Greeks begun the ' Serbianization ' and the ' Hellenization ' of the parts in Macedonia they already controlled, while Bulgarians faced some difficulties against the Jews [ citation needed ] and the Turkish populations.
Moreover, the possession of Thessalonica was a living dream for the Bulgarians that were preparing for a new war.
For this, the Bulgarian troops had a secret order in June to launch surprise attacks on the Serbs. Greece and Serbia signed a previous bilateral defensive agreement May Consequently, Bulgaria decided to attack Greece and Serbia.
After some initial gains the Bulgarians were forced to retreat back to Bulgaria proper and lose nearly all of the land they had conquered during the first war.
The Treaty of Bucharest August took off most of the Bulgarian conquests of the previous years. A large part of Macedonia became southern Serbia, including the territory of what today is the Republic of North Macedonia, and southern Macedonia became northern Greece.
Greece almost doubled its territory and population size and its northern frontiers remain today, more or less the same since the Balkan Wars.
However, when Serbia acquired 'Vardarska Banovina' the present-day Republic of North Macedonia , it launched having expansionist views aiming to descend to the Aegean, with Thessalonica as the highest ambition.
However, Greece after the population exchange with Bulgaria, soon after its victory in the Balkan wars, managed to give national homogeneity in the Aegean and any remaining Slavic-speakers were absorbed.
Many volunteers from Macedonia joined Bulgarian army and participated in the battles against Bulgarian enemies in these wars—on the strength of the Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps and other units.
After World War I Macedonian Campaign the status quo of Macedonia remained the same. The establishment of the 'Kingdom of Serbians, Croats and Slovenes' in , which in was renamed 'Yugoslavia' South Slavia predicted no special regime for Skopje neither recognized any Macedonian national identity.
In fact, the claims to Macedonian identity remained silent at a propaganda level because, eventually, North Macedonia had been a Serbian conquest.
The situation in Serbian Macedonia changed after the Communist Revolution in Russia — According to Sfetas, Comintern was handling Macedonia as a matter of tactics, depending on the political circumstances.
In the early s it supported the position for a single and independent Macedonia in a Balkan Soviet Democracy. Actually, the Soviets desired a common front of the Bulgarian communist agriculturists and the Bulgarian-Macedonian societies to destabilize the Balkan Peninsula.
The Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization IMRO , under the protection of Comintern, promoted the idea of an independent Macedonia in a Federation of Balkan states, unifying all Macedonians.
However, the possible participation of Bulgaria in a new war, on the Axis side, ended the Soviet support some years later. Bulgaria joined the Axis powers in , when German troops prepared to invade Greece from Romania reached the Bulgarian borders and demanded permission to pass through Bulgarian territory.
In October , Jat Airways does not have any intentions with MAT Macedonian Airlines, instead they have planned an airline for Republic of Macedonia called Aeromak.
MAT Macedonian Airlines also operated flights to Czech Republic , Denmark , Germany , Hungary Italy , Luxembourg , Spain , Sweden , Switzerland , and Turkey until December The MAT Macedonian Airlines fleet included the following aircraft at 1 September : .
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